Diabetes is a range of diseases involving problems with the hormone insulin. While not everyone with type 2 diabetes is overweight, obesity and lack of exercise are two of the most common causes of this form of diabetes. It is also responsible for nearly 95% of diabetes cases in the United States, according to the CDC. This article gives you a better understanding of the causes of type 2 diabetes, what happens in the body when type 2 diabetes occurs, and the special problems that increase the risk for type 2 diabetes. Each section links to more detailed information on this topic.
In a healthy person, the pancreas (an organ behind the stomach) releases insulin to help the body store and use the sugar from the food you eat. Diabetes occurs when one of the following events occurs:
- When the pancreas produce insulin.
- When the pancreas produces very little insulin.
- If the body does not respond adequately to insulin, so-called “insulin resistance.”
Unlike people with type 1 diabetes, people produce insulin with type 2 diabetes; However, their pancreatic insulin is either not enough or the body is not able to recognize the insulin, and use it properly (insulin resistance). If there is not enough insulin or insulin is not used, as it should be, glucose (sugar) can not get into the cells of the body and expands in place the bloodstream. When glucose builds in the blood rather than in cells causes damage in various areas of the body. Also, because the cells are not getting the glucose that they need, they can not function properly.
The role of insulin in the cause of type 2 diabetes
To understand why insulin is important, it helps to learn more about how the body know food for energy. Your body is made up of millions of cells. To make energy, these cells need food in a very simple form. If you eat or drink, much of the food is in a simple sugar called Broken “glucose.” Then glucose is determined by the blood stream to the cells, if they may be used to provide transport for the daily activities of the energy of the body.
The amount of glucose in the blood is regulated by insulin and other hormones. Insulin is always released in small amounts by the pancreas. If the amount of glucose in the blood rises to a certain level, the pancreas is to squeeze more insulin release more glucose into the cells. This causes the glucose levels to fall in the blood (blood sugar levels).
To keep blood sugar levels from too low (hypoglycemia or low blood sugar), which held the body signals that you eat, and gives some glucose from stores in the liver; it also signals the body to reduce the amount of released insulin.
People with diabetes either do not make insulin or their body cells no longer are able to recognize insulin, leading to high blood sugar. By definition, diabetes with a blood sugar level greater than or equal to 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dL) after an overnight fast (not eating anything) or greater by a non-fasting glucose level or equal to 200 mg / dL with symptoms greater diabetes or glucose level of greater than or equal to 200 mg / dl on a 2-hour glucose tolerance test or a A1C than or equal to 6.5%. Have diabetes, which are at least two of these test criteria, or confirmed by repeating these tests on another day.